White Mountain is located on the west bank of the Fish River, near the head of Golovin Lagoon, on the Seward Peninsula. It is 63 miles east of Nome.

The Inupiat fish camp of "Nutchirviq" was located here. The bountiful resources of both the Fish and Niukluk Rivers supported the area's Native populations. White Mountain grew after the influx of prospectors during the gold rush of 1900. The first structure was a warehouse built by miner Charles Lane to store supplies for his claim in the Council District. It was the site of a government-subsidized orphanage, which became an industrial school in 1926. A post office was opened in 1932. The city government was incorporated in 1969.

White Mountain is a Kawerak Eskimo village, with historical influences from the gold rush. Subsistence activities are prevalent.